• Minal Patel Department of Botany, Bioinformatics and Climate change impacts management, School of Science, Gujarat University.
  • Hiteh Kumarkhaniya
  • Bharat Maitreya



Manures, Fertilizer, Nano-biofertilizer, Soil health


Environmental friendly techniques for elevating soil health includes the use of various organic amendments such as in the form of organic manures, green manures, organic matter in form of leftover straws, bio-fertilizers, composts, and many more. Traditionally the farmers usually preferred to make use of organic manures as they received a by-product from cattle farming. This helped them to maintain soil health sufficiently. However, now with the increase in population and decrease in crop yield, it has been the time to make some efforts to produce as much as sufficient as the food demand. Therefore, the conventional trend developed towards the use of artificial amendments in the form of chemical fertilizers. This improved the crop yield and proved effective to nourish demand. However, this also turned a curse with time by lowering bio geological cycles of soil and so lowering the fertility which indeed made overuse of chemical fertilizers. This has been continued for decades. Momentarily focusing more on crop productivity by supplying nutrients without harming the rhizosphere has been made possible with the help of nano fertilizers. Nanotechnology is the most advanced technology in current research trends. The current review focuses on how effective these methodologies are.


Akhtar, N., Ilyas, N., Meraj, T. A., Pour-Aboughadareh, A., Sayyed, R. Z., Mashwani, Z. U. R., &Poczai, P. (2022). Improvement of plant responses by nanobiofertilizer: a step towards sustainable agriculture. Nanomaterials, 12(6), 965.

Benckiser, G. (2017). Nanotechnology in life science: its application and risk. Nanotechnology: An Agricultural Paradigm, 19-31.

Cavigelli, M. A., & Thien, S. J. (2003). Phosphorus bioavailability following incorporation of green manure crops. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67(4), 1186-1194.

Chen, J., Lü, S., Zhang, Z., Zhao, X., Li, X., Ning, P., & Liu, M. (2018). Environmentally friendly fertilizers: A review of materials used and their effects on the environment. Science of the total environment, 613, 829-839.

Choudhary, R. C., Kumaraswamy, R. V., Kumari, S., Pal, A., Raliya, R., Biswas, P., & Saharan, V. (2017). Synthesis, characterization, and application of chitosan nanomaterials loaded with zinc and copper for plant growth and protection. Nanotechnology: an agricultural paradigm, 227-247.

Das, S. K., & Varma, A. (2011). Chapter 2: Role of enzymes in maintaining soil health. Soil Enzymology, Soil Biology, 25-42.

Davari, M. R., Bayat Kazazi, S., &AkbarzadehPivehzhani, O. (2017). Nanomaterials: implications on agroecosystem. Nanotechnology: An Agricultural Paradigm, 59-71.

Doran, J. W. (2002). Soil health and global sustainability: translating science into practice. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 88(2), 119-127.

Gholami-Shabani, M., Gholami-Shabani, Z., Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Jamzivar, F., &Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M. (2017). Green nanotechnology: biomimetic synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants and their application in agriculture and forestry. Nanotechnology: An Agricultural Paradigm, 133-175.

Goel, A. (2018). Role of Nanofertilizers in Sustainable Agriculture. In Sustainable Biological Systems for Agriculture (pp. 209-219). Apple Academic Press.

Gosavi, V. C., Daspute, A. A., Patil, A., Gangurde, A., Wagh, S. G., Sherkhane, A., &AnandraoDeshmukh, V. (2020). Synthesis of green nanobiofertilizer using silver nanoparticles of Allium cepa extract Short title: Green nanofertilizer from Allium cepa. IJCS, 8(4), 1690-1694.

Horwath, W. (2007). Carbon cycling and formation of soil organic matter. In Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry (pp. 303-339). Academic Press.

Horwath, W., & Paul, E. A. (2015). Carbon cycling: the dynamics and formation of organic matter. Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry, 4, 339-82.

Iderawumi, A. M., & Kamal, T. O. (2022). Green manure for agricultural sustainability and improvement of soil fertility. Farming and Management, 7(1), 1-8.

Jadoun, S., Arif, R., Jangid, N. K., & Meena, R. K. (2021). Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts: A review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 19, 355-374.

Jha, S. (2018). Plant-Nanoparticles (Np) Interactions—a Review: Insights into Developmental, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Np Phytotoxicity. Sustainable Biological Systems for Agriculture, 83-120.

Kandeler, E. (2007). Physiological and biochemical methods for studying soil biota and their function. In Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry (pp. 53-83). Academic press.

Kandeler, E. (2007). Physiological and biochemical methods for studying soil biota and their function. In Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry (pp. 53-83). Academic press.

Kaushal, M., & Wani, S. P. (2017). Nanosensors: frontiers in precision agriculture. Nanotechnology: an agricultural paradigm, 279-291.

Kaushik, S., &Djiwanti, S. R. (2017). Nanotechnology for enhancing crop productivity. Nanotechnology: An Agricultural Paradigm, 249-262.

Kibblewhite, M. G., Ritz, K., & Swift, M. J. (2008). Soil health in agricultural systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363(1492), 685-701.

Kumar, M., Shamsi, T. N., Parveen, R., & Fatima, S. (2017). Application of nanotechnology in enhancement of crop productivity and integrated pest management. Nanotechnology: An Agricultural Paradigm, 361-371.

Kumar, S., Sindhu, S. S., & Kumar, R. (2022). Biofertilizers: An ecofriendly technology for nutrient recycling and environmental sustainability. Current Research in Microbial Sciences, 3, 100094.

Kumari, R., & Singh, D. P. (2020). Nano-biofertilizer: an emerging eco-friendly approach for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 90, 733-741.

Lehmann, J., Bossio, D. A., Kögel-Knabner, I., &Rillig, M. C. (2020). The concept and future prospects of soil health. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 1(10), 544-553.

Lindsay, W. L., & Norvell, W. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil science society of America journal, 42(3), 421-428.

Logeswari, P., Silambarasan, S., & Abraham, J. (2015). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants extract and analysis of their antimicrobial property. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 19(3), 311-317.

Maikhuri, R. K., & Rao, K. S. (2012). Soil quality and soil health: A review. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 38(1), 19-37.

Masum, M. M. I., Siddiqa, M. M., Ali, K. A., Zhang, Y., Abdallah, Y., Ibrahim, E., ... & Li, B. (2019). Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract and its inhibitory action against the pathogen Acidovoraxoryzae strain RS-2 of rice bacterial brown stripe. Frontiers in microbiology, 10, 820.

Muthu, H. D., Izhar, T. N. T., Zakarya, I. A., Saad, F. N. M., &Ngaa, M. H. (2023). Comparative Study between Organic Liquid Fertilizer and Commercial Liquid Fertilizer and Their Growth Performances on Mustard Greens. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 1135, No. 1, p. 012002). IOP Publishing.

Nardi, S., Concheri, G., &Dell'Agnola, G. (1996). Biological activity of humus. In Humic substances in terrestrial ecosystems (pp. 361-406). Elsevier Science BV.

Nielsen, M. N., Winding, A., Binnerup, S., & Hansen, B. M. (2002). Microorganisms as indicators of soil health.

Pachani, S., & Kashyap, N. (2020). Soil health and its quality: A Review. IJCS, 8(2), 1434-1436.

Pajura, R., Masłoń, A., &Czarnota, J. (2023). The Use of Waste to Produce Liquid Fertilizers in Terms of Sustainable Development and Energy Consumption in the Fertilizer Industry—A Case Study from Poland. Energies, 16(4), 1747.

Pal, S. L., Jana, U., Manna, P. K., Mohanta, G. P., &Manavalan, R. (2011). Nanoparticle: An overview of preparation and characterization. Journal of applied pharmaceutical science, (Issue), 228-234.

Pansu, M., &Gautheyrou, J. (2006). of Soil Analysis.

Paul, E. A. (2007). Soil microbiology, ecology, and biochemistry in perspective. In Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry (pp. 3-24). Academic Press.

Paul, E. A. (2014). Soil microbiology, ecology, and biochemistry: an exciting present and great future built on basic knowledge and unifying concepts. Soil microbiology, ecology, and biochemistry, 1-13.

Penuelas, J., Coello, F., &Sardans, J. (2023). A better use of fertilizers is needed for global food security and environmental sustainability. Agriculture & Food Security, 12(1), 1-9.

PLANTE, A. F. (2007). Soil biogeochemical cycling of inorganic nutrients and metals. In Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry (pp. 389-432). Academic Press.

Plante, A. F., Stone, M. M., & McGill, W. B. (2015). The metabolic physiology of soil microorganisms. Soil microbiology, ecology, and biochemistry, 245-272.

Premsekhar, M., &Rajashree, V. (2009). Influence of organic manures on growth, yield and quality of okra. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(1), 6-8.

Rico, C. M., Peralta-Videa, J. R., &Gardea-Torresdey, J. L. (2015). Chemistry, biochemistry of nanoparticles, and their role in antioxidant defense system in plants. Nanotechnology and plant sciences: nanoparticles and their impact on plants, 1-17.

Sangeetha, J., Thangadurai, D., Hospet, R., Harish, E. R., Purushotham, P., Mujeeb, M. A., ... & Prasad, R. (2017). Nanoagrotechnology for soil quality, crop performance and environmental management. Nanotechnology: an agricultural paradigm, 73-97.

Sangeetha, J., Thangadurai, D., Hospet, R., Purushotham, P., Karekalammanavar, G., Mundaragi, A. C., ... & Harish, E. R. (2017). Agricultural nanotechnology: concepts, benefits, and risks. Nanotechnology: An Agricultural Paradigm, 1-17.

Sangeetha, J., Thangadurai, D., Hospet, R., Purushotham, P., Manowade, K. R., Mujeeb, M. A., ... & Harish, E. R. (2017). Production of bionanomaterials from agricultural wastes. Nanotechnology: an agricultural paradigm, 33-58.

Sanjana, M., Bindu, G. M., Padmaja, B., Devi, M. U., & Triveni, S. Profitable Green Manure Crops for Rabi Fallows of Southern Telangana Zone.

Saxena, S. (2015). Applied microbiology. Springer.

Sharma, B., Tiwari, S., Kumawat, K. C., & Cardinale, M. (2022). Nano-biofertilizers as bio-emerging strategies for sustainable agriculture development: Potentiality and their limitations. Science of The Total Environment, 160476.

Siddiqui, M. H., Al-Whaibi, M. H., Firoz, M., & Al-Khaishany, M. Y. (2015). Role of nanoparticles in plants. Nanotechnology and plant sciences: nanoparticles and their impact on plants, 19-35.

Singh, J., Dutta, T., Kim, K. H., Rawat, M., Samddar, P., & Kumar, P. (2018). ‘Green’synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: applications for environmental remediation. Journal of nanobiotechnology, 16(1), 1-24.

Singh, R. P. (2017). Application of nanomaterials toward development of nanobiosensors and their utility in agriculture. Nanotechnology: an agricultural paradigm, 293-303.

Suhag, M. (2016). Potential of biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers. Int Adv Res J Sci Eng Technol, 3(5), 163-167.

Thul, S. T., & Sarangi, B. K. (2015). Implications of nanotechnology on plant productivity and its rhizospheric environment. Nanotechnology and plant sciences: nanoparticles and their impact on plants, 37-53.

Vora, M. S., &Shelat, H. N. (2013). Handbook of biofertilizers and microbial pesticides. Satish Serial Publishing House.

Voroney, R. P. (2007). The soil habitat. In Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry (pp. 25-49). Academic Press.

Voroney, R. P., & Heck, R. J. (2015). Chapter 2-The Soil Habitat A2-Paul, Eldor A. BT-Soil Microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry (pp. 15–39).

Wakeel, A., Farooq, M., Qadir, M., & Schubert, S. (2011). Potassium substitution by sodium in plants. Critical reviews in plant sciences, 30(4), 401-413.

Yadav, A., Gupta, R., & Garg, V. K. (2013). Organic manure production from cow dung and biogas plant slurry by vermicomposting under field conditions. International Journal of Recycling of organic waste in agriculture, 2, 1-7




How to Cite

Patel, M., Kumarkhaniya, H., & Maitreya, B. (2023). COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF TRADITIONAL, CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED METHODOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE – A REVIEW. International Association of Biologicals and Computational Digest, 2(1), 82–94.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>